History

COMPUTER HISTORY

History of UNIX / Linux and other variants

1957

Bell Labs found they needed an operating system for their computer center which at the time was running various batch jobs. The BESYS operating system was created at Bell Labs to deal with these needs.

1965

Bell Labs was adopting third generation computer equipment and decided to join forces with General Electric and MIT to create Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service).

1969

By April 1969, AT&T made a decision to withdraw Multics and go with GECOS. When Multics was withdrawn Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie needed to rewrite an operating system in order to play space travel on another smaller machine (a DEC PDP-7 [Programmed Data Processor 4K memory for user programs). The result was a system which a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service)–an ‘emasculated Multics’.

1969

Summer 1969 UNIX was developed.

1969

Linus Torvalds is born.

1971

First edition of UNIX released 11/03/1971. The first edition of the “UNIX PROGRAMMER’S MANUAL [by] K. Thompson [and] D. M. Ritchie” is also dated “November 3, 1971″. It includes over 60 commands like: b (compile B program); boot (reboot system); cat (concatenate files); chdir (change working directory); chmod (change access mode); chown (change owner); cp (copy file); ls (list directory contents); mv (move or rename file); roff (run off text); wc (get word count); who (who is one the system). The main thing missing was pipes.

1972

Second edition of UNIX released 12/06/1972

1972

Ritchie rewrote B and called the new language C.

1973

UNIX had been installed on 16 sites (all within AT&T/Western Electric); it was publically unveiled at a conference in October.

1973

Third edition of UNIX released February 1973

1973

Forth edition of UNIX released November 1973

1974

Fifth edition of UNIX released June 1974

1974

Thompson went to UC Berkeley to teach for a year, Bill Joy arrived as a new graduate student. Frustrated with ed, Joy developed a more featured editor em.

1975

Sixth edition of UNIX released May 1975

1975

Bourne shell is introduced begins being added onto.

1977

1BSD released late 1977

1978

2BSD released mid 1978

1979

Seventh edition of UNIX released January 1979

1979

3BSD released late 1979

1979

SCO founded by Doug and Larry Michels as UNIX porting and consulting company.

1980

4.0BSD released October 1980

1982

SGI introduces IRIX.

1983

SCO delivers its first packaged UNIX system called SCO XENIX System V for Intel 8086 and 8088 processor-based PCs.

1984

Ultrix 1.0 was released.

1985

Eighth edition of UNIX released February 1985

1985

The GNU manifesto is published in the March 1985 issue of Dr. Dobb’s Journal. The GNU project starts a year and a half later.

1986

HP-UX 1.0 released.

1986

Ninth edition of UNIX released September 1986

1987

Sun and AT&T lay the groundwork for business computing in the next decade with an alliance to develop UNIX System V Release 4.

1988

HP-UX 2.0 released.

1988

HP-UX 3.0 released.

1989

SCO ships SCO UNIX System V/386, the first volume commercial product licensed by AT&T to use the UNIX System trademark.

1989

HP-UX 7.0 released.

1989

Tenth edition of UNIX released October 1989

1990

AIX short for Advanced Interactive eXecutive was first entered into the market by IBM February 1990.

1991

Sun unveils Solaris 2 operating environment, specially tuned for symetric multiprocessing.

1991

Linux is introduced by Linus Torvalds, a student in Finland. Who post to the comp.os.minix newsgroup with the words: Hello everybody out there using minix –

I’m doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones.

1991

HP-UX 8.0 released.

1991

BSD/386 ALPHA First code released to people outside BSDI 12/xx/1991

1992

HP-UX 9.0 released.

1993

NetBSD 0.8 released 04/20/1993

1993

FreeBSD 1.0 released December of 1993

1994

Red Hat Linux is introduced.

1994

Caldera, Inc was founded in 1994 by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks.

1994

NetBSD 1.0 released 10/26/1994

1995

FreeBSD 2.0 released 01/xx/1995

1995

SCO acquires UNIX Systems source technology business from Novell Corporation (which had acquired it from AT&T’s UNIX System Laboratories). SCO also acquires UnixWare 2 operating system from Novell.

1995

HP-UX 10.0 released.

1995

4.4 BSD Lite Release 2 the true final distribution from the CSRG 06/xx/1995

1996

KDE is started to be developed by Matthias Ettrich

1997

HP-UX 11.0 released.

1997

Caldera ships OpenLinux Standard 1.1 May 5, 1997, the second offering in Caldera’s OpenLinux product line

1998

IRIX 6.5 the fifth generation of SGI UNIX is released July 6, 1998.

1998

SCO delivers UnixWare 7 operating system.

1998

Sun Solaris 7 operating system released.

1998

FreeBSD 3.0 released 10/16/1998

2000

FreeBSD 4.0 released 03/13/2000

2000

Caldera Systems Inc. announces that Caldera Systems has entered into agreement to acquire the SCO Server Software Division and the Professional Services Division.

2001

Microsoft files a trademark suit against Lindows.com in December.

2004

Lindows changes it’s name to Linspire April 14, 2004.

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